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Diagnosis of Sjögren's Syndrome

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer
Overview
Antibodies
Biomarkers
Nailfold Capillaroscopy
Salivary Gland Biopsy
Schirmer's Test
Slit Lamp Test
Ultrasonography of Glands

Overview

Typical diagnostic tests for Sjögren's include Schirmer's eye test, slit-lamp test, tests measuring saliva flow, radiologic salivary scans, and salivary gland biopsy.

Antibodies

Comparison of Effect on Sicca Symptoms of Anticentromere Antibody-positive (ACA) Sjögren Syndrome (SS) and Primary Sjögren Syndrome (pSS) Alone. ACA+ SS is associated with more severe objective ocular sicca and more severe subjective and objective oral sicca compared to ACA-SS. PubMed, J Rheumatol, 2020 Jun 1;47(6):876-880.

Identification of a novel autoantibody against self–vimentin specific in secondary Sjögren's syndrome (sSS). This novel autoantibody is highly specific in the diagnosis of sSS, and the underlying molecular mechanism of the disease might be epitope spreading involved with vimentin. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2018 Feb 12;20(1):30.

Biomarkers

Circular Ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequencing indicates circ-IQGAP2 and circ-ZC3H6 as noninvasive biomarkers of primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS). This study indicated the potential roles of circ-IQGAP2 and circ-ZC3H6 as noninvasive biomarkers for the diagnosis of pSS. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 04/06/2020.

Plasma α-L-fucosidase-1 in patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) and other rheumatic disorders. This preliminary result should encourage further research on α-L-FUCA-1 as a possible differential serological marker of SS. PubMed, Int J Rheum Dis, 08/16/2019.

Proteomic and histopathological characterisation of sicca subjects and primary Sjögren's syndrome patients reveals promising tear, saliva and extracellular vesicle disease biomarkers. The tear and salivary biomarkers identified could be implemented as potential non-invasive diagnostic tools that may aid in increasing diagnostic accuracy. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2019 Jul 31;21(1):181.

Nailfold Capillaroscopy

Nailfold capillaroscopic findings in primary Sjögren's syndrome with and without Raynaud's phenomenon and/or positive anti-SSA/Ro and anti-SSB/La antibodies. Patients with RP associated with PSS had more dilated capillaries, but neither pericapillary haemorrhages nor capillary thrombosis was observed. PubMed, Rheumatol Int. (Also see Diagnosis of Primary Raynaud's using Nailfold Capillaroscopy)

Salivary Gland Biopsy

Clinical characteristics and biopsy accuracy in suspected cases of Sjögrenís syndrome (pSS) referred to labial salivary gland biopsy, Labial salivary gland biopsy has high sensibility, specificity, positive and negative predictive values for diagnosis of pSS. PMC, BMC Musculoskelet Disord.

Schirmer's Test for Diagnosis of Sjogren's Syndrome

Schirmer's Test. This is also known as a dry eye test, a tear test, or a tearing test. The Schirmer's test determines whether the eye produces enough tears to keep it moist. Paper strips are inserted under the eyelid. Before the test, you may be given numbing eye drops to prevent tearing due to the irritation from the paper. Most often, the eyes are closed for about 5 minutes. Medline Plus, NIH.

Slit Lamp Test

Slit Lamp Examination. The slit lamp exam uses an instrument that provides a magnified, three-dimensional (3-D) view of the different parts of the eye. During the exam, your health professional can look at the front parts of the eye, including the clear, outer covering (cornea), the lens, the colored part (iris), and the front section of the gel-like fluid (vitreous gel) that fills the large space in the middle of the eye. WebMD.

Ultrasonography of Glands

Salivary Gland Ultrasonography (US) as a Diagnostic Tool for Secondary Sjögren Syndrome (sSS) in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). Salivary gland US may aid the diagnosis of sSS in patients with RA. PubMed, J Rheumatol. (Also see Rheumatoid Arthritis in Overlap)

Go to Sjogren's Syndrome Research
 
 

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