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Cause of Scleroderma: B Cells and T Cells

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer
Overview of B Cells and T Cells
B Cells and T-Cells and Autoimmunity
B Cells and T Cells and Systemic Sclerosis

Overview of B Cells and T Cells

T cells are white blood cells that help stimulate an immune response to infections. In the thymus gland, lympohocytes are matured into T cells. Sometimes T cells become overactive, which is suspected as being part of the process that leads to autoimmune diseases. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma, What is Scleroderma?, Types of Scleroderma, and Systemic Sclerosis)

B Cells and T Cells.The white blood cells involved in the acquired immune response are called 'lymphocytes'. There are two main types of lymphocytes - B cells and T cells. B and T lymphocytes are made in the bone marrow, like the other blood cells. They have to fully mature before they can help in the immune response. T cells travel through the blood stream to the thymus gland where they become fully developed. Once they are fully mature, they travel to the spleen and lymph nodes, ready to fight infection. Cancer Research UK.

Thymus. The thymus is a ductless gland located in the upper anterior portion of the chest cavity. It is most active during puberty, after which it shrinks in size and activity in most individuals and is replaced with fat. The thymus plays an important role in the development of the immune system in early life, and its cells form a part of the body's normal immune system. Wikepedia.

B Cells and T Cells and Autoimmunity

Cellular aspects of the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of tubulointerstitial inflammation will identify novel therapeutic targets predicted to improve outcomes in our patients with lupus nephritis. PubMed, Curr Opin Rheumatol, 2021 Mar 1;33(2):197-204. (Also see Treatments for Lupus)

Salivary gland epithelial cells (SGECs) from patients with Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) induce B-lymphocyte survival and activation. SGECs from patients with pSS had better ability than those from controls to induce survival and activation of B lymphocytes. PubMed, Ann Rheum Dis, 2020 Nov;79(11):1468-1477. (Also see Sjögren's Syndrome Research)

T Cells in Autoimmunity-Associated Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD). In the future, T cells are likely to represent major targets for the prevention and treatment of CVD in patients with autoimmune diseases. PubMed, Front Immunol, 2020 Oct 7;11:588776. (Also see Research about Scleroderma Cardiac (Heart) Involvement)

Changes of frequency and expression level of CD161 in CD8 + T cells and natural killer (NKC) T cells in peripheral blood of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The frequencies and levels of CD161 expression on CD8+ T cells and NKT cells were reduced in SLE patients, suggesting that an abnormality of these cells was related to the pathogenesis of SLE. PubMed, Microbiol Immunol, 2020 Jul;64(7):532-539. (Also see Natural Killer Cells)

Type 2 Polarized T Cell Phenotype is Associated with Methotrexate (MTX) Non-response in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). MTX-non-responsive RA patients exhibit a bias towards type 2-polarized T cell inflammatory responses. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol, 02/10/2020. (Also see Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis and Immunosuppressants)

Biologic Sequencing in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE): After Secondary Non-response to Rituximab, Switching to Humanised Anti-CD20 Agent Is More Effective Than Belimumab. Our data suggests that patients with secondary non-depletion and non-response to rituximab, should be switched within the same biologic class to another anti-CD20 agent. PubMed, Front Med (Lausanne), 2020 Aug 27;7:498. (Also see Treatments for Lupus)

B cell synovitis and clinical phenotypes in rheumatoid arthritis: relationship to disease stages and drug exposure. We demonstrate an ongoing B cell-rich synovitis in a larger proportion of patients with established RA that does not seem to be captured by standard clinimetric assessment. PubMed, Arthritis Rheumatol, 11/29/2019. (Also see Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis)

Imbalance between CD8+CD28+ and CD8+CD28- T-cell subsets and its clinical significance in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. These data suggest that high expression of Fas, FasL and IL-6 and low expression of CTLA-4 by the CD8+CD28+ T-cell subset promotes the activation-induced cell death of the CD8+CD28+ T-cell subset. PubMed, Lupus, 2019 Aug 9:961203319867130. (Also see Causes of Lupus)

Depletion of PD-1-positive cells ameliorates autoimmune disease. The targeted depletion of PD-1-expressing cells contingent to the preservation of adaptive immunity might be effective in the treatment of a wide range of autoimmune diseases. PubMed, Nat Biomed Eng, 2019 Apr;3(4):292-305.

Deltex1 (DTX1) suppresses T cell function and is a biomarker for diagnosis and disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). DTX1 expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was significantly lower in SLE patients and had an inverse correlation with disease activity, indicating that the DTX1 level may be a good disease marker of SLE. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 01/09/2019. (Also see Diagnosis of Lupus)

Aberrant T cell subsets and cytokines expression profile in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). T cell subsets and levels of chemokines and cytokines in patients with SLE and their relationships between disease activity and organ involvement were assessed. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol, 2018 Sep;37(9):2405-2413. (Also see Causes of Lupus)

B-cell activity markers are associated with different disease activity domains in primary Sjögren's syndrome. All biomarkers were associated with total EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Disease Activity Index scores but with differing domain associations. PubMed, Rheumatology (Oxford), 03/28/2018. (Also see Sjögren's Syndrome Research)

B and T Cells and Systemic Sclerosis (SSc, Scleroderma)

Lymphocyte subset abnormalities in early diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis. Analysis of immune cell parameters has identified abnormalities that likely reflect disease pathogenesis and that are candidate biomarkers for sub-classification and targeted treatment. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2021 Jan 6;23(1):10.

Longitudinal analysis of T-cell receptor repertoires reveals persistence of antigen-driven CD4 + and CD8 + T-cell clusters in systemic sclerosis. Our results show that CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells are highly persistent in SSc patients over time, and this persistence is likely a result from antigenic selection. PubMed, J Autoimmun, 2020 Dec 8;117:102574.

Association of Silicone Breast Implants, Breast Cancer and Anti-RNA Polymerase III Autoantibodies in Systemic Sclerosis: Case-Based Review. The specific autoimmune reaction is not yet fully understood, although knowledge in this regard is increasing. PubMed, Open Access Rheumatol, 2020 Sep 21;12:207-213. (Also see Artificial Joints and Silicone Breast Implants)

Low B cell counts as risk factor for infectious complications in systemic sclerosis after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT). After aHSCT, monitoring for infectious complications, especially for cytomegalovirus reactivations, is crucial as the reconstitution of the immune system takes longer than 12 months. PubMed, Arthritis Res Ther, 2020 Aug 8;22(1):183. (Also see Stem Cell (Bone Marrow) Transplantation)

CD21low B cells in systemic sclerosis: A possible marker of vascular complications. CD21low B cells are increased in SSc patients with visceral vascular manifestations. PubMed, Clin Immunol, 2020 Apr;213:108364. (Also see Vascular Involvement)

B cell depletion treatment decreases CD4+IL4+ and CD4+CD40L+ T cells in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Our study demonstrates a link between rituximab treatment and CD4+IL4+ T cell decrease both in the skin and peripheral blood of patients with SSc. PubMed, Rheumatol Int, 06/21/2019. (Also see Biologic Agents)

Skin resident memory T cell population is not effectively constructed in systemic sclerosis. Regarding the contribution of circulating T cells, over–production of IL-13 by circulating effector/memory T cells is reported to be critical for more severe cutaneous disease. PubMed, Br J Dermatol, 08/18/2018.

B cell activating factor (BAFF) inhibition attenuates fibrosis in scleroderma (SSc) by modulating the regulatory and effector B cell balance. BAFF inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy for SSc via alteration of B cell balance. Science Advances, 07/11/2018.

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