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Overview: What is Sarcoidosis?

Sarcoidosis KaleidoscopeSarcoidosis typically begins in the lungs, however it can affect any part of the body. The first symptom of sarcoidosis is usually shortness of breath.

What is Sarcoidosis? Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that affects multiple organs in the body, but mostly the lungs and lymph glands. In patients with sarcoidosis, abnormal masses or nodules (called granulomas) consisting of inflamed tissues form in certain organs of the body. These granulomas might alter the normal structure and possibly the function of the affected organ(s). Cleveland Clinic.

Sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease that starts in your lungs, but in time it can affect virtually any organ in your body, including your liver, skin, heart, nervous system and eyes. Mayo Clinic.

Sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder of unknown cause that is characterized by granuloma formation in affected organs, most often in the lungs. PubMed, Nat Rev Dis Primers, 2019 Jul 4;5(1):45.

Endobronchial Mucosal Neuroma with Sarcoidosis. A first case of endobronchial mucosal neuroma with sarcoidosis is hereby reported. PubMed, J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2018 Feb;28(2):162-163.


Genetics of sarcoidosis. Biology approaches will soon help unravel the differing and common features of sarcoidosis with other granulomatous disorders and also with diseases with significantly different phenotypes and allow the development of new therapeutic strategies and tools. PubMed, Semin Respir Crit Care Med.


Sarcoidosis Diagnosis. There is no single way to diagnose sarcoidosis, since all the symptoms and laboratory results can occur in other diseases. UCSF.

The Burden of Neurosarcoidosis: Essential Approaches to Early Diagnosis and Treatment. This publication provides an approach to screening, diagnosis, disease activity discernment, and pharmacological as well as nonpharmacological treatment interventions. PubMed, Semin Respir Crit Care Med, 2020 Oct;41(5):641-651.

Gastric sarcoidosis: Rare revealing feature of systemic sarcoidosis. Other granulomatous diseases need to be excluded especially infectious diseases before establishing the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. PubMed, Arab J Gastroenterol, 02/27/2020.

Interleukin 33 ameliorates disturbance of regulatory T cells in pulmonary sarcoidosis. These results suggested a major anti–inflammatory ability of IL33 to ameliorate the disturbance of Th1/Th2 and Tregs in pulmonary sarcoidosis. PubMed, Int Immunopharmacol, 2018 Sep 6;64:208-216.

Case Report: Early diagnosis of early–onset sarcoidosis (EOS) with functional analysis and review of the literature. Skin rash with granuloma formation and specific NOD2 mutations may represent early diagnostic hallmarks of EOS in infants with persistent inflammation. PubMed, Clin Rheumatol.


Possible Signs and Symptoms. Shortness of breath (dyspnea) and a cough that won't go away can be among the first symptoms of sarcoidosis. But sarcoidosis can also show up suddenly with the appearance of skin rashes.

Is hypoxia a factor in the progression of pulmonary sarcoidosis? Recent data suggest an involvement of the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. PubMed, Rev Mal Respir, 03/04/2020.

Sarcoidosis and the Liver. Therapy may be indicated in a minority of patients to control symptoms, but the effects of therapy in the natural history of hepatic granulomas are unknown. PubMed, Clin Liver Dis, 2019 May;23(2):331-343.

How are cancer and connective tissue diseases (CTDs) related to sarcoidosis? The association between sarcoidosis and both cancer and CTDs may yield important insights into the immunopathogenesis of all three diseases. PubMed, Curr Opin Pulm Med. (Also see Connective Tissue Disease and Cancer)


The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS): quality and availability in sarcoidosis and other diseases. The FAS has good psychometric qualities for the diseases in which it has been examined, including sarcoidosis, and can be used in clinical practice. PubMed, Curr Opin Pulm Med, 06/07/2018. (Also see Fatigue)

Clinicopathological features of sarcoidosis manifesting as generalized chronic myopathy. Muscle biopsy specimens revealed an active inflammatory process and functional improvement after immunomodulatory treatment was significantly better in patients with short disease durations. PubMed, J Neurol.

Case Report: Sarcoidosis–associated pulmonary hypertension (SAPH) treated with sildenafil. Development of SAPH significantly worsens prognosis in sarcoidosis patients and here, we report a case of a patient with severe SAPH treated with sildenafil. PubMed, Adv Respir Med. (Also see Treatments for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Sildenafil)

Personal Stories

Debs B: Diffuse Systemic Sclerosis (England) This seems to be a long list of ailments that I have been coping with for years, so the addition of diffuse systemic sclerosis did not really panic me…

Missie R: Mixed Connective Tissue Disease I finally asked for an ANA test to check for lupus. My family doctor hesitated because my symptoms were all over the board…

Yolima: Diffuse Scleroderma I was misdiagnosed for more than a year with so many diseases and given all types of medication for different problems except for the real disease…

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