Multiple Sclerosis

Author: Shelley Ensz. Scleroderma is highly variable. See Types of Scleroderma. Read Disclaimer
Overview of Multiple Sclerosis
Symptoms of MS
Overlaps with MS
MS and Glandular Fever
MS and Scleroderma
Causes of MS
Treatments and Clinical Trials
MS Research
Personal Stories About MS
Support Organizations
MS Media Stories


Muliple Sclerosis KaleidoscopeMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system, causing intermittent or chronic symptoms. It may cause muscle pain, weakness and tremors; dizziness, depression, parasthesias and fatigue; bladder and bowel dysfunction; and speech or vision disturbances.

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). PubMed, Health.


Early clinical markers of aggressive multiple sclerosis. These findings suggest that older age at symptom onset, greater disability during the first year, and pyramidal signs in the first year are early indicators of aggressive multiple sclerosis. PubMed, Brain, 05/09/2020.

Factors associated with receiving bone mineral density (BMD) screening among people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Factors known to be associated with low BMD were associated with BMD screening in people with MS, but a clinically meaningful proportion of individuals with MS who have low bone mass may be missed. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2019 Jan 8;28:305-308. (Also see Osteoporosis)

Prevalence of fatigue and its association with clinical features in progressive and non–progressive forms of Multiple Sclerosis. Fatigue was more prevalent amongst participants with progressive MS and higher fatigue severity and impact were associated with greater physical, cognitive, and psychological impairment. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2019 Jan 3;28:276-282. (Also see Fatigue)

The MRZ reaction helps to distinguish rheumatologic disorders with central nervous involvement (RDwCNS) from multiple sclerosis. Considering the high specificity of MRZR-2 for MS found in this study, MRZR-2 can be a useful diagnostic tool for distinguishing MS from RDwCNS or other inflammatory neurological diseases. PubMed, BMC Neurol, 2018 Jan 31;18(1):14.

Depression and fatigue in multiple sclerosis (MS): Relation to exposure to violence and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immunomarkers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, fatigue, and exposure to violence, with IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the CSF of MS patients. PubMed, Psychoneuroendocrinology, 2018 Jan 4;89:53-58. (Also see Depression and Fatigue)


Neurofibromatosis type 2 and multiple sclerosis. Comorbidity of neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) and multiple sclerosis (MS) has rarely been reported. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2019 Dec 9;39:101890.

Multiple Sclerosis and Glandular Fever

Systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), multiple sclerosis (MS) and other risk factors. EBV appears to interact with some established MS risk factors and the mechanism via which EBV influences MS risk remains unknown. PubMed, Mult Scler, 03/23/2020.

Multiple Sclerosis and Scleroderma

Multiple sclerosis (MS) sometimes occurs along with other autoimmune diseases, but seems to be rare in association with systemic scleroderma. Very few cases have been identified in medical journals.

Lisa W: Diffuse Scleroderma, CREST and Multiple Sclerosis I was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). That also took over a year to diagnose. My doctors tell me that I am one out of millions with this case of bad luck…


Cell–specific and region–specific transcriptomics in the multiple sclerosis model: Focus on astrocytes. The potential role of cholesterol synthesized by astrocytes during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and MS is discussed. PubMed, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2018 Jan 9;115(2):E302-E309.


Clinical presentation and diagnosis of multiple sclerosis. New diagnostic criteria have been developed to allow an earlier diagnosis and thus access to effective disease modifying treatments. PubMed, Clin Med (Lond), 2020 Jul;20(4):380-383.

Impact of intrathecal IgG synthesis on neurological disability in patients with multiple sclerosis. IgG levels in CSF at MS diagnosis are significantly correlated with the level of neurological disability independent of the relapse frequency. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2020 Jul 7;45:102382.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) with atypical MRI presentation: Results of a nationwide multicenter study in 57 consecutive cases. A significant number of MS patients can have a striking atypical presentation and may be misdiagnosed. PubMed, Mult Scler Relat Disord, 2018 Dec 18;28:109-116

Treatments and Clinical Trials

Comparing the effects of vestibular rehabilitation with and without lavender oil scents as an olfactory stimulus on balance, fear of falling down and activities of daily living of people with multiple sclerosis: a randomized clinical trial. This treatment significantly alleviates the psychological effects of multiple sclerosis on daily life such as sleeping problems, feeling unwell, anxious, tense, depressed, etc. PubMed, Disabil Rehabil, 2020 Dec 11;1-7.

Novartis wins FDA approval to repurpose leukaemia drug against multiple sclerosis. Novartis on Thursday won U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval to repurpose an 11-year-old blood cancer drug against multiple sclerosis. Reuters Health, 08/20/2020.

Selective Modulation of TNF-TNFRs Signaling: Insights for Multiple Sclerosis (MS) Treatment. A receptor–selective modulation of TNFα signal pathways provides a novel therapeutic concept that might lead to new insights in MS pathology with major implications for its effective treatment. PubMed, Front Immunol, 2018 Apr 30;9:925.

Eye and balance exercises may ease multiple sclerosis symptoms. People with multiple sclerosis who do balance and eye movement exercises may feel steadier on their feet and experience less fatigue and dizziness, a small trial suggests. Reuters Health, 02/15/2018.


Defining the course of tumefactive multiple sclerosis (TuMS): a large retrospective multicentre study. Large prospective studies could help to define the clinical characteristics and the best treatment algorithms for people with TuMS. PubMed, Eur J Neurol, 12/10/2020.

Adaptive Features of Natural Killer (NK) Cells in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Our results provide novel insights into the putative influence of Human cytomegalovirus and adaptive NK cells in MS. PubMed, Front Immunol, 2019 Oct 15;10:2403. (Also see Natural Killer Cells)

Personal Stories About Multiple Sclerosis or Difficult Diagnosis

Autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis, lupus and scleroderma can be very difficult to properly diagnose, particularly in the early stages of illness. Many of these stories regard onset of scleroderma during which time MS was considered as a possible diagnosis. (Also see Difficult Diagnosis)

Boo: CREST Scleroderma Finally in 1994, it was labeled as CREST syndrome, which is a form of systemic scleroderma…

Beverly: CREST Scleroderma I was overtired and needed naps in the afternoon, pain was slowly getting the better of me and I finally went to the doctor…

Carla: CREST Syndrome and Fibromyalgia When I read some of these stories, they scare the devil out of me. Is this really that bad?…

Cindy Fuchs-Morrissey: Mother of a Progressive Systemic Sclerosis Child Hilary has an aggressive form of scleroderma with swallowing problems, bowel problems, fatigue, acral bone dysplasia of the hands and feet…

Debbie: CREST Here's a copy of a letter I sent to my rheumatologist…

Kathi: Scleroderma/Lupus I am forty-three years old and have not been feeling well for ten years…

Krisha S: Multiple Autoimmune Condition I have multiple sclerosis (MS), fibromyalgia, and Stiff Person Syndrome…

Lisa W: Diffuse Scleroderma, CREST and Multiple Sclerosis I was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). That also took over a year to diagnose. My doctors tell me that I am one out of millions with this case of bad luck…

McKenzie: Scleroderma with CREST I felt numbness crept down both my legs. I said, "I can't feel my legs!" and sat down on the floor…

Nan: Mixed Connective Tissue Disease and Fibromyalgia Finally after several years of struggle, one wonderful doctor at OSU got gutsy and gave me the MCTD diagnosis…


(U.S.) National Multiple Sclerosis Society The mission of the National Multiple Sclerosis Society is to end the devastating effects of MS. National Multiple Sclerosis Society.

Media Stories

Pregnancy 'delays onset of multiple sclerosis by more than THREE YEARS'. Pregnancy may delay the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS) by more than three years, scientists have found. Mail Online, 09/14/2020.

Multiple Sclerosis in the Media throughout History. Autobiographies and media attention about sufferers with MS have helped bring this disease, and the ability to cope with it, to greater public attention. There has been a dramatic change in attitudes on public and patient education about MS. Demos Health.

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