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Causes of Diabetes

Janey WillisHello, I am Janey Willis, ISN Guide to Diabetes. Type 1 Diabetes is an autoimmune disease, and Type 2 Diabetes is caused by risk factors such as lifestyle, ethnicity, age, and pregnancy. The majority of diabetics have Type 2. See Disclaimer.

Overview of Causes of Diabetes
Antibodies
Environmental Factors
Genetics
Physiological Factors
Viruses

Overview of the Causes of Diabetes

Causes of Diabetes KaleidoscopeCauses of diabetes includes genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Risk factors for Type 2 Diabetes include obesity, inactivity, poor diet, age, ethnicity, and pregnancy. (Also see Autoimmune Diseases and Overview of Diabetes)

Antibodies

T-Cell Costimulation — Biology, Therapeutic Potential, and Challenges. CTLA-4 is involved in the induction and maintenance of T-cell tolerance. CTLA-4 polymorphisms in humans have been linked to susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes and autoimmune thyroid disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. (Also see Causes of Scleroderma: T-Cells and Thyroid Disease)

Environmental Factors

Diabetes: New pathway to treatment suggested by protein culprit. New research shows that a protein related to the development of anxiety and depression may also play a role in triggering diabetes. Medical News Today.

Genetics

Research Finds Shared Genetic Susceptibility for Celiac Disease and Type 1 Diabetes - Celiac Disease Awareness Campaign. A genetic susceptibility to both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease shares common alleles which suggests that common biological mechanisms, such as autoimmunity-related tissue damage and intolerance to dietary antigens, may be etiological features of both diseases. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.

Physiological Factors

Association between skeletal muscle mass to visceral fat area ratio (SVR) and arterial stiffness (ASM) in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. SVR has an independent, negative association with arterial stiffness, and is a better risk-assessment tool than ASM, PubMed, BMC Cardiovasc Disord, 2018 May 8;18(1):89.

Viruses

Enteroviruses and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D): Is It the Virus, the Genes or Both Which Cause T1D? This review discusses previously identified virus-associated genetics and pathways of β-cell destruction. PubMed, Microorganisms, 2020 Jul 8;8(7):E1017.

Innate Viral Sensor MDA5 and Coxsackievirus Interplay in Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) Development. An interplay between genetics, enteroviral infections, and antiviral responses may be critical for T1D development. PubMed, Microorganisms, 2020 Jul 3;8(7):993.

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